Missing letter sounds

So today I thought about how many letters are pronounced like one of the vowels, so I made a list.

In the first column is the vowel, a, e, i, o and u, and following them are the letters that are sounded out by that vowel.

E gets the overwhelming majority. A and O get nothing but themselves.

a a j k 
e b c d e g p t v z
i i y
o o
u q u w

But what about the missing letters:

f h l m n r s x

What makes them so special?

And the sounds that don’t even have letters, like th.

There’s probably lots of language people and phoneme people who’ve worked all this out but I just noticed it today.


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